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Categorie: Internationale ontwikkelingen (pagina 2 van 19)

Minister Ank Bijleveld ontmoet nieuwe Belgische ambtsgenoot

“Hoe pakt België dat aan?” Deze vraag stelde minister Ank Bijleveld gisterenavond verschillende keren aan Sander Loones, de nieuwe minister van Defensie van België. Er waren dan ook genoeg onderwerpen om samen over te praten. De ontmoeting was daarnaast een gelegenheid om een contract voor verkoop van radarsystemen aan België te ondertekenen.

Europese ontwikkelingen, militaire mobiliteit, de strijd tegen ISIS en de unieke samenwerking op het gebied van de marine: dat waren enkele van de onderwerpen waar de ministers elkaar over spraken.
Sommige daarvan zijn een illustratie van wat minister Bijleveld “de unieke en nauwe band tussen België en Nederland” noemde. De “goede en professionele” samenwerking in Jordanië is daar volgens haar ook een mooi voorbeeld van.

Stokje overdragen

Bij meerdere onderwerpen wilde Bijleveld graag weten hoe de Belgische minister erover dacht en welke activiteiten België ontplooit. Bijvoorbeeld waar het gaat om de ‘standaard diplomatieke toestemming’ voor EU- en NAVO-partners met betrekking tot militaire mobiliteit. Door die goed te regelen, kunnen militairen en defensiematerieel in de toekomst veel soepeler door Europa bewegen. Ank Bijleveld: “Wat heeft België op nationaal niveau al ondernomen om dit te organiseren?”  Daarnaast gaf ze aan verheugd te zijn over het Belgische besluit tot de verwerving van de F-35: “Onze samenwerking die al bij de F-16 bestaat, kan nu op hoofdlijnen worden voortgezet.” De minister vond het ook erg mooi dat België Nederland opvolgt als lid van de VN-Veiligheidsraad: “Ik draag vanuit Defensie graag het stokje aan u over.”

Lees verder op Defensie.nl

In Spanje bouwen ze Saudi-Arabië’s oorlogsschepen maar wat graag

De moord op Khashoggi is heus erg, maar miljardendeals met de Saudiërs stopzetten, daar peinst Spanje niet over. De belangen voor de werkgelegenheid op de scheepswerf in Andalusië zijn te groot.

“Als ik werkelijk de mensenrechten kon beschermen door deze boten níet te bouwen nam ik morgen ontslag. Maar zo simpel ligt het niet”, vertelt ingenieur Enrique Martínez (61) uitkijkend over de baai van Cádiz in Andalusië. Achter de wapenopslag van de Spaanse marine staan de loodsen van Navantia, al ruim veertig jaar zijn werkgever.

De scheepsbouwer tekende begin november een belangrijk contract voor de bouw van vijf korvetten, kleine fregatten, voor Saudi-Arabië. Daar zijn 1,8 miljard euro en zesduizend directe- en indirecte banen mee gemoeid. Het is volgens persbureau Reuters het eerste militaire contract dat de Arabische hoofdstad Riyadh afsloot met een land sinds de geruchtmakende moord op de journalist Jamal Khashoggi door een Saudisch liquidatieteam.
Na de moord op de journalist in het Saudisch consulaat in Istanbul vorige maand kreeg het land felle internationale kritiek te verduren. Terwijl Duitsland en Noorwegen uit protest de (toekomstige) wapenexport naar Saudi-Arabië staakten, zette Spanje door. Waarmee het onder meer de lijn van de VS, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en Frankrijk volgt. De militaire industrie is belangrijk voor Spanje, dat volgens het Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in de top tien van ‘s werelds grootste wapenexporteurs staat.

Met zijn grijze baard, leren jack en Palestina-sjaal heeft Navantia-ingenieur Martínez meer weg van een vredesactivist dan een wapenbouwer. Zijn vakbond en hijzelf veroordelen bovendien onomwonden mensenrechtenschendingen waar Saudi-Arabië voor verantwoordelijk is. “Maar als Europa ons niet tegenhoudt, waarom zouden wij het dan aan de concurrent overlaten?”, zegt Martínez. “Ik hoop dat de Spaanse regering een even afgewogen keuze maakt over de wapenhandel met Saudi-Arabië als de professionaliteit die ik in bouw van de boten steek”.

Saudi-Arabië dreigde in september nog van de deal af te zien als Spanje niet over de brug kwam met vierhonderd bestelde precisiebommen. De linkse regering in Madrid dreigde de levering te bevriezen, vanwege het conflict in Jemen waar de Saudiërs bij betrokken zijn, maar haalde bakzeil. “Saudi-Arabië beschouwt de handelsrelaties als één geheel”, concludeerde de Spaanse minister van buitenlandse zaken Borrell. Want naast de korvetten-deal stond opeens ook de lucratieve hogesnelheidslijn, die mede door de Spaanse spoorwegen wordt aangelegd tussen Medina en de heilige stad Mekka, op de helling. Vrijwel de gehele lokale- en landelijke Spaanse politiek schaarde zich vervolgens zonder veel morren achter de korvetten-deal.

In de armlastige baai van Cádiz (600 duizend inwoners) is Navantia een van de belangrijkste werkgevers. De autonome regio Andalusië, waar de stad ligt, heeft ondanks de rap groeiende Spaanse economie een van de hoogste werkloosheidcijfers van Spanje. “Een lasser bij Navantia kan 1500 euro netto verdienen, dat is hier een regelrecht fortuin”, vertelt Paco Cuesta woordvoerder van vakbond CCOO.

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A Building Block in Enhanced European Defense Capabilities: The German-Norwegian Common Submarine Build

The Nordics are clearly working a way ahead for enhanced direct defense of their region.
And they are doing so within the context of a reworking of NATO capabilities for Northern European defense.

F-35 acquisition is one way the Norwegians are working this approach.
The common acquisition of submarines with the Germans is another.
Recently (November 27, 2018), the Norwegian Ministry of Defence announced that they had received a binding offer from the Germans on October 30, 2018 and are now working on the next phase of negotiations.

Norway and Germany will together negotiate a contract to procure six identical submarines. The commercial process towards the supplier has been ongoing since the summer of 2017, and the binding offer from ThyssenKrupp Marine as a basis of the next phase of negotiations.

The procurement agencies, Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency (NDMA) in Norway and Bundesamt für Ausrüstnung, Informationstechnik und Nutzung der Bundeswehr (BAAINBw) in Germany, received the binding offer from the main supplier on the 30th of October 2018, and has begun a thorough joint evaluation of the offer.

“We will now go through the offer from the shipyard before the negotiations begin,”says Minister of Defence Frank Bakke-Jensen.

Norway and Germany will conduct joint negotiations towards the shipyard with the aim of reaching an agreement and signing a contract in 2019. Both nations expect the negotiations to be challenging.

Germany and Norway will procure identical submarines in the same timeframe. This will give synergies and savings throughout the lifetime of the submarines for both nations.

In addition to the submarine cooperation, the nations have established a Navy-to-Navy cooperation, Research and Development cooperation and a Missile cooperation.

In other words, the approach will provide new capabilities for Norway and enhanced capabilities for Germany and a deepened cooperation in working the key areas of common defense, like the Baltic Sea.
An article written by Thomas Nilsen and published in The Barents Observer on February 3, 2017 highlighted the importance of the deal.

Norway’s current fleet of six Ula-class conventional submarines reaches end of life by mid- 2020 to 2030 and will be decommissioned. In times-of-budget-cuts and disarmament in the years after the Cold War, one option considered for the Navy was to scrap the idea of having an own fleet of submarines.

Then Russia started to re-arm and modernize its Northern fleet vessels and weapons based on the Kola Peninsula bordering Norway on the Barents Sea coast. After scrapping 130 of its Cold War fleet of nuclear powered submarines, Vladimir Putin’s Russia is now building new multi-purpose and ballistic missile submarines at a speed not seen since the end of the 1980s. Eight new Borey-class, eight new Severodvinsk class, several new diesel-powered and other special purpose submarines are recently delivered to the Northern fleet or currently under construction.

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TKMS submits binding offer for Norwegian, German Type 212 submarine construction

A joint German-Norwegian project to procure common-design Type 212 air-independent propulsion submarines has made another step forward as ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) – the preferred contractor on the project – submitted its binding offer in October this year.

As disclosed by the Norwegian government, the two countries’ procurement agencies, Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency (NDMA) and Germany’s Bundesamt für Ausrüstnung, Informationstechnik und Nutzung der Bundeswehr (BAAINBw), received the binding offer from the main supplier on October 30, 2018, and have begun a joint evaluation of the offer.

The two countries will subsequently enter into joint negotiations with the shipyard with the aim of reaching an agreement and signing a contract in 2019. Should all go according to plans, the first boat will be delivered seven years after the construction contract is signed.

Norway and Germany are procuring six identical Type 212 CD (common design) submarines after TKMS was selected as the preferred bidder in February 2017. French submarine specialist Naval Group also participated in the Norwegian tender but the proposition of acquiring the submarines jointly with Germany likely tipped the decision in favor of Germany’s TKMS.

The German Navy already operates six vessels in the class. The same type of submarine is in service with the Italian Navy.

Norway is acquiring four air-independent submarines to replace the existing six Ula-class submarines that were commissioned between 1989-1992. The submarines were designed to last for 30 years and will reach the end of their life in the mid-2020s. The country has also brought in UK-based BMT Defence Services (BMT) as a consultant in the project.

Lees verder op Navaltoday.com

Consolidate or become obsolete, German official tells European arms makers

BERLIN (Reuters) – European weapons makers to consolidate, the German government’s armaments director said on Wednesday, and warned that failing to reduce the continent’s fragmented defence industry could make Europe obsolete.

Arms makers need to move beyond mere cooperation agreements and deepen ties, Benedikt Zimmer told hundreds of industry executives and military and government officials at the Berlin Security Conference, and said the drive was supported by the top levels of the German government.

“You can call me a dreamer, but if we don’t get it done, we are on the best way to making Europe obsolete,” Zimmer said. The German call for consolidation is significant — it was the German government that in 2012 blocked the merger of Britain’s BAE Systems and Airbus, worried that it could result in the loss of high-paying jobs. Mergers in sensitive areas such as defence must be approved by national governments and European Union authorities, so a green light from Germany could help stimulate more M&A activity, industry executives said.

In a separate speech in Berlin, German Finance Minister Olaf Scholz echoed Zimmer’s comments, saying European Union member states should work together more closely on arms procurement to save money and become more effective. Mergers would also have to occur, he said.

“It’s no secret: There will be and there must be consolidation in the European armaments industry,” Scholz said. Scholz, a member of the Social Democrats, who often oppose exports of German arms, said a unified European approach would also ease pressure on companies to export their goods to sometimes problematic buyer countries outside Europe.

Lees verder op Euronews.com

ASC highlights Collins-class sustainment risks

Australian shipbuilder ASC has warned that the country’s programme to build next-generation submarines under Project Sea 1000 could pose a serious risk to Australian capability to sustain its Collins-class platforms.

In a recent submission to the Australian Senate’s Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade Legislation Committee, ASC pointed to concerns about the availability of human resources within Australia to support the Collins-class submarines given the large scale of the Sea 1000 project which features the construction of 12 boats. In its submission, ASC also called for closer engagement between the Collins-class sustainment project and Sea 1000 to ensure that “one programme’s success does not come at the expense of the other’s failure”. ASC added that Australia’s capability to sustain its six Collins-class submarines is framed around a wider industrial sector it terms as the country’s “submarine enterprise”. The company noted that Naval Group, the French shipbuilder that will partner ASC on the Sea 1000 project, is currently not part of this enterprise.

“As the Future Submarine [Sea 1000] programme gathers momentum, the submarine enterprise’s ability to deliver the Collins-class capability will be tested by higher demands for key human resources such as senior submarine platform engineers and designers,” said ASC in its submission. “At present the Commonwealth’s partner for the Future Submarine programme, Naval Group, is not part of the Australian submarine enterprise … While Naval Group remains separate from the submarine enterprise, its growth and impact on the sector poses a serious risk to a key Sovereign Industrial Capability Priority of the government – the Collins-class [submarines].”

Lees verder op Janes.com

Naval Group en lessen over onderzeeboten uit Australie: banen en zorg dat Nederland eigenaar wordt van het ontwerp

Drieduizend banen belooft de CEO van Naval Group als de Fransen -in samenwerking met Nederland- de vervangers van de Walrusklasse mogen bouwen. Mooi. Maar niet het belangrijkste. De Naval Group weet echter ook te melden wat wél het belangrijkste is en dat zijn lessen die uit Australië komen. 

Half november presenteerde minister van Defensie Ank Bijleveld de Defensie Industrie Strategie (DIS). In dit 53-pagina’s tellende document, waar door velen lang naar werd uitgekeken, schrijft de minister dat Nederland niet alleen het beste product voor de beste prijs wil, maar ook “met een zo groot mogelijke betrokkenheid van het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven”. Verder schreef ze: “Nederland [heeft] de ambitie om zelf bepaalde militaire capaciteiten te ontwerpen en produceren. Daarbij houden we rekening met industrieën die al in Nederland aanwezig zijn en de Nederlandse maat. Wat betekent dit concreet? We willen bijvoorbeeld onze eigen marinebouw behouden en versterken.”

Banen
Komt de DIS met bijbehorende koerswijziging dan niet erg ongelegen voor bijvoorbeeld de Naval Group? Dat valt mee, want de Naval Group pakt het dossier Vervanging Walrusklasse serieus aan. De CEO van het Franse bedrijf, Hervé Guillou, had eerder al laten weten dat Nederland kan rekenen op 2.000 tot 3.000 banen als Nederland kiest voor het Franse ontwerp.

Die aantallen herhaalde Guillou tegenover Marineschepen.nl tijdens de NIDV-beurs in Rotterdam, nadat de DIS was gepresenteerd. “1.500 banen bij Nederlandse scheepswerven en ongeveer hetzelfde aantal bij toeleveranciers. Maar niet op hetzelfde moment,” nuanceerde Guillou enigszins. “Het is een schatting op basis van wat we bij andere projecten realiseren. In Brazilië gaat het om 2.000 banen op scheepswerven en in Australië om 1.800 banen.” Op de vraag wat voor banen dat zijn, bevestigt de topman dat het in Nederland om hoogwaardige banen gaat die direct te maken hebben met onderzeebootbouw.

Maar het is nog vroeg, zegt Guiillou. “De details moeten nog uitgewerkt worden.” En daar werkt de Naval Group hard aan. Het heeft een kantoor in Den Haag geopend en is op zoek naar partners binnen de Nederlandse marine-industrie, want mocht Naval Group de opdracht krijgen, is het niet de bedoeling dat de onderzeeboten in Cherbourg worden gebouwd. “Daar hebben we genoeg werk. We zullen wel in Frankrijk de romp bouwen, maar we willen de onderzeeboot verder in Nederland afbouwen. En dat kan hier heel goed, want al zijn er al lang geen onderzeeboten meer gebouwd in Nederland, het niveau van de industrie is erg hoog en erg volwassen. Momenteel hebben we 70 Nederlandse bedrijven gecontacteerd en 40 zijn vorige week op bezoek geweest. Wel zullen we voor de bouw in Nederland moeten investeren en op dat vlak hangt veel af van de Nederlandse overheid en Defensie, daarom zijn we ook in dialoog met onder andere DMO en Economische Zaken.”  Het is aan die twee laatst genoemde partijen om het aantal beloofde banen te wegen. Het blijft lastig om zonder uitgebreide berekening de schatting te kunnen volgen. Het zijn in ieder geval aantallen die bij hen die vooral geïnteresseerd zijn in de economische kant van nieuwe onderzeeboten, als muziek in de oren klinken. Waar die banen ongeveer zitten wordt iets duidelijker in een gesprek met Sean Costello, de voormalige CEO van Naval Group Australië en momenteel nog steeds werkzaam bij het Franse bedrijf. Volgens hem is het totale aantal banen, inclusief de Franse en bestaande banen, te verdelen over vier categorieën: 1. Overheid, DMO, onderzoeksinstituten, etc., 2. Hoofdaannemer, ontwerper en bouwer, 3. Leveranciers van producten, 4. Leveranciers van materialen.
In groep 2 is het meeste werk te verwachten, maar dat is niet alleen de Naval Group want bij een eventuele samenwerking worden de onderzeeboten niet volledig in Frankrijk gebouwd. Naval Group is daarom in gesprek met Royal IHC in Kinderdijk als bouwer. Dus levert het in ieder geval Nederlandse banen op bij de bouw van de boten. Dat laatste geldt ook voor de leveranciers van producten en bedrijven die zorgen voor de integratie. Een heel klein aandeel werkt momenteel met Naval Group, daarom moeten die bedrijven zich wel kwalificeren: voldoen ze aan de eisen van de Naval Group en sluiten hun systemen aan op de Franse? Dat wordt getest in Nantes, voldoen ze maar komen ze iets te kort (bijvoorbeeld beschikken ze niet over de juiste kabels), dan krijgen ze die technologie van de Naval Group.

Lees verder op Marineschepen.nl

French submarine boss summoned to Canberra for crisis talks

The Australian government has summoned the head of the French company tasked with building a $50bn fleet of next-generation submarines for crisis talks in Canberra.

Naval Group chief executive Hervé Guillou travelled from Paris to the national capital for two days of discussions which kicked off on Thursday.

The federal government is yet to finalise a strategic partnering agreement with Naval Group, which is designing Australia’s fleet of 12 new submarines. There are hopes to have the agreement sorted by Christmas.

A defence insider said there are tensions between Naval Group’s executive director in charge of the Australian submarine project, Jean-Michel Billig, and senior Defence officials. The source characterised the negotiations as tracking “poorly”. “There are some legitimate policy differences that have been greatly exacerbated by personality clashes,” the source said. It’s understood Defence secretary Greg Moriarty and acquisition boss Anthony Fraser are also involved in the crisis talks.

If no headway is made soon, the talks could be escalated to ministerial level or up to prime minister Scott Morrison and French president Emmanuel Macron. The pair are expected to meet on the sidelines of the upcoming G20 leaders summit in Argentina at the end of the month. It’s understood the sticking points on negotiations include warranty issues,the level of Australian content, as well as a potential sale or merger between Naval Group and Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri.

In October, the defence minister, Christopher Pyne, dismissed reports the submarine project was in trouble.

In 2016 the Turnbull government agreed to purchase a dozen Shortfin Barracuda-class submarines to replace the ageing Collins subs, which were launched in 1998. The subs are due to be built in Adelaide, starting in 2022.

Australia’s lead negotiator, Rear Admiral Greg Sammut, told the Submarine Institute of Australia conference in Canberra earlier this month that the first submarine won’t finish trials until 2034 or 2035.

The final sub is expected to be delivered in the 2050s.

Lees verder op Theguardian.com

Self-creating Naval Shipbuilding under European Pressure?

The Netherlands has managed to maintain its own naval shipbuilding cluster, but pressure for more European cooperation is mounting. Is this a threat or opportunity?

SWZ|Maritime’s November issue is a Navy Special coordinated by Jaap Huisman, a former Defence employee who has been involved with naval vessel building projects throughout his career. He contributed an article of his own to this special in

The construction of frigates in the Netherlands and relations with surrounding countries
The Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) is facing important replacement projects; those for minehunters have already been set in motion, while those for the Dutch and Belgian frigates and submarines will follow soon. Since the Second World War, the Netherlands has opted to develop its naval vessels in a close cooperation of navy, knowledge institutes and industry. This has resulted in a self-creating naval cluster, but pressure to allow for more European cooperation is mounting. Yet, this development also offers opportunities and may lift the Dutch naval shipbuilding industry to a European level. An outline of the developments.After the war, the navy was rebuilt energetically. The two cruisers of which both keels had already been laid before the war, were finished. Subsequently, sixteen A- and B-hunters were built. Ath this time, the larger ships were designed by the RNLN’s “Bureau Scheepsbouw” and then developed by the Nevesbu (“Nederlandse Verenigde Scheepsbouw Bureaus”, founded in 1935) into a quotation and contract specifications.

The “Nederlandsche Dok en Scheepsbouw Maatschappij” (NDSM) in Amsterdam, “Wilton Feijenoord” (WF), the “Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij” (RDM) and the “Koninklijke Maatschappij De Schelde” (KMS) all participated in Nevsbu. These yards were then designated to build the ships. There was no competition. However, competition was put on the tender of the frigates of the Van Speijk class in 1962. These six ships were eventually divided between the NDSM and the KMS. The frigates were based on the English Leander class design, GW- and S-frigates.

Fleet Renewal
In 1964 a plan was developed for fleet renewal. The airship and cruisers were replaced by long-haul patrol planes and guided weapon frigates. The A- and B-hunters by standard frigates.The design of the guided weapon frigates was started in 1965 and the construction of the two ships started in 1971. The design of the S frigates started in 1969. The first keel was laid in 1975. Twelve of these would eventually be built, the last one in 1980. In 1981 the keel was laid of two air defense frigates based on the design of the S frigates, but where the helicopter was replaced by a long-range air defense system.

Massive Changes
It was a time of massive renewal and change. Due to the increased threat from Russian submarines, anti-submarine warfare became a high priority. The threat of guided weapons at sea was also recognised and this placed high demands on the sensors and weapons. The propulsion system changed from steam engines to gas turbines, changing the way training and maintenance were organised. Perhaps the biggest development took place in the automation from analogue to digital.

Appointed Shipyard and Suppliers
In the meantime, after the RSV debacle (shipbuilding group “Rijn-Schelde-Verolme Machinefabrieken en Scheepswerven NV” (RSV) was a combination of shipyards and machine factories that came into being in early 1971 and collapsed in 1983 as a result of many causes arising from the crisis in heavy shipbuilding at the time, ed.), KMS had been appointed as the master builder of the larger surface vessels and RDM specialised in the production of submarines. All the frigates mentioned were built by KMS (with the exception of two frigates that were put out to tender with WF) and that heralded the start of a naval construction cluster, in which not only the shipyard, but also permanent subsuppliers were chosen, who could build up sufficient knowledge and experience for these increasingly complex ships. Thales supplied sensors and fire control systems. This company has always been of great importance to the navy since its establishment in 1922. Imtech was responsible for the electrical installation and platform automation. The gas turbines were supplied by Rolls-Royce.

Open Budget
Because there was no competition, an open budget was used and every part of the vessel was negotiated from the specifications, both technically and financially. A disadvantage was that the yard did not immediately feel called to innovation.

Professionalised Management
On the side of the navy, the management was professionalised. This also created more bureaucracy and regulations. Especially after the Walrusaffaire in 1985, the authority and responsibilities of the project leader were defined and demarcated in relation to the technical departments. The reporting obligation was tightly regulated.

Operational Software in House
The “stafeisen” (list of requirements) are the responsibility of the navy staff and are the dominant document in the process. These requirements are based on an analysis of the threat, the technology available or that can still be made available in the meantime and of course the budget. A preliminary design was developed by the shipbuilding office. An iterative process, because a compromise acceptable to all parties was never found at once. Together with the master builder and the Nevesbu, a set of specifications was developed. Then, often through lengthy negotiations, a contract was reached.

Ministry Acquires SEWACO
A striking feature of the Dutch approach is that the Ministry itself acquires the sensor, weapon and command systems (SEWACO). This is in contrast to what is customary in many countries, where the entire project is usually placed with a main contractor. In the Netherlands, the ship platform is purchased separately, while the operational software is developed and produced in-house. This certainly saves costs, because it avoids the usually large financial margin of a master builder on the so-called SEWACO system. However, it does introduce a planning problem between the delivery times of the platform and the SEWACO system, which often solves itself only with difficulty. In addition, the Ministry takes responsibility for the proper functioning of the weapons system and everything related to it. In practice, however, this is not a real problem because the master builder cannot bear this responsibility for complex military systems.

The navy, therefore, has its own software house for the development, production and maintenance of operational software, for example for the air defence system. Due to the rapid technological developments and increasing threat, this software has an increasingly important role. By carrying out this development in-house, the experience on board can be fed back directly. The developments are preferably carried out in an “evolutionary” process. This prevents major errors and therefore high costs.

Multipurpose Frigates 
In 1980, the design of the so-called multipurpose frigate was started, as a replacement for the Van Speijk frigates and the Predator class. The “stafeisen” offered many new challenges. In the first place, the ship had to be cheaper to buy and maintain than the S-frigat. This meant smaller dimensions, introduction of more civil standards and less personnel on board. The latter demanded automation and preferably using the latest developments. This meant that the ship was operated from the technical centre, command centre and bridge using, for example, screens and keyboards.

Although some of them were already used on board the Walrus class, many applications still had to be developed, such as mimics for propulsion, damage control and fire fighting. Typically, a lot of ergonomic research was carried out during the development of the mimics and the living and working environment, in which mock-ups were also built and tested by future personnel. This has enabled the ship to distinguish itself. This frigate also had the task of combating submarines in addition to self-defence against, among other things, the threat of guide weapons. This meant that a lot of effort was made to limit the underwater noise as much as possible and also to minimize radar reflection and infrared radiation. In addition, the experiences of the British Navy during the Falklandoorlog in 1982 were also processed: the ship’s resilience was increased, bulkheads were strengthened, fire insulation was installed and fire extinguishing equipment was improved. A complaint about the S-frigat was that the ship took over relatively much green water in seas, which led to damage to the superstructure and systems. Intensive and systematic model research at Marin led to the lines plan being optimised for sea access and propulsion characteristics.

Lees verder op swzonline.nl

A ‘True European Army’? Dream On

‘We must protect ourselves with respect to China, Russia, and even the United States,” French President Emmanuel Macron said earlier this month, calling for European strategic autonomy from the U.S. That autonomy would, in Mr. Macron’s words, include a “true European army.” A few days later, German chancellor Angela Merkel echoed the call for a European force. The vision is gaining momentum, propelled in part by Donald Trump’s diplomacy of rudeness against America’s European allies.

Lees verder op WSJ.com

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